The end of the Cold War, the growing globalization of the world economy, and new waves of immigration from many parts of the world led to several efforts to open out the study of world literature. This change is well illustrated by the expansion of The Norton Anthology of World Masterpieces, whose first edition of featured only Western European and North American works, to a new "expanded edition" of with substantial non-Western selections, and with the title changed from "masterpieces" to the less exclusive "Literature".
The explosive growth in the range of cultures studied under the rubric of world literature has inspired a variety of theoretical attempts to define and delimit the field and to propose effective modes of research and teaching. In his book What Is World Literature? David Damrosch argued for world literature as less a vast canon of works and more a matter of circulation and reception, and he proposed that works that thrive as world literature are ones that work well and even gain in various ways in translation.
Whereas Damrosch's approach remains tied to the close reading of individual works, a very different view was taken by the Stanford critic Franco Moretti in a pair of articles offering "Conjectures on World Literature". Moretti's approach combined elements of evolutionary theory with the world-systems analysis pioneered by Immanuel Wallerstein , an approach further discussed since then by Emily Apter in her influential book The Translation Zone.
Both Moretti and Casanova emphasize the inequalities of the global literary field, which Moretti describes as "one, but unequal". The field of world literature continues to generate debate, with critics such as Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak arguing that too often the study of world literature in translation smooths out both the linguistic richness of the original and the political force a work can have in its original context.
Once a primarily European and American concern, world literature is now actively studied and discussed in many parts of the world. World literature series are now being published in China and in Estonia, and a new Institute for World Literature, offering month-long summer sessions on theory and pedagogy, had its inaugural session at Peking University in , with its next sessions at Istanbul Bilgi University in and at Harvard University in Since the middle of the first decade of the new century, a steady stream of works has provided materials for the study of the history of world literature and the current debates.
Valuable collections of essays include:. The World Wide Web provides in many ways the logical medium for the global circulation of world literature, and many websites now enable readers around the world to sample the world's literary productions. Finally, globally oriented authors themselves are increasingly creating work for the internet. What texts count as world literature is debatable.
While some argue that a work's exemplary artistic value and influence allow it to enter the canon of world literature, many scholars of world literature point out that literary quality is not inherent nor influence universal or lasting; rather, standards of quality are relative and vary among communities and across space and time.
As the scholar David Damrosch writes, "Over the centuries, an unusually shifty work can come in and out of the sphere of world literature several different times; and at any given point, a work may function as world literature for some readers but not others, and for some kinds of reading but not others. The shifts a work may undergo, moreover, do not reflect the unfolding of some internal logic of the work in itself but come about through often complex dynamics of cultural change and contestation.
Very few works secure a quick and permanent place in the limited company of perennial World Masterpieces; most works shift around over time, even moving into and out of the category of 'the masterpiece. Thus, rather than gauge a work's worthiness as world literature on its inherent quality or lasting influence, many scholars assert that what makes a work world literature is merely its circulation beyond its country of origin.
For example, Damrosch states, "A work enters into world literature by a double process: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. Learn how and when to remove these template messages. This article is written like a personal reflection or opinion essay that states a Wikipedia editor's personal feelings about a topic.
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Martin Puchner et al. A New Comparative Literature. We have a brilliant team of more than 60 Support Team members looking after discussions on The Student Room, helping to make it a fun, safe and useful place to hang out. View your post below. We just need to check something in your message and will publish it as soon as we can. Freshers homepage Freshers home page Chat forums University life forum Forums by university Forums by course Uni accommodation Fresher blogs.
Downloads What to take to uni checklist Uni life hacks ebook. Undergraduate Full time Part time. Parents and partners Repayment Advanced Learner Loan. Turn on thread page Beta Toggle. How to write a good IB world lit essay in HL english? Starting uni is full of surprises: Start new discussion Reply. Follow 1 What are you supposed to write about in a world lit essay?
I'm doing my essay on antigone but i'm not sure what i'm supposed to write.. Follow 2 Hi, found an example for you: It's not so much an argument as an analysis of an extract s of the book s with respect to your question.
By this I mean you must pick one or more extracts and pick apart phrases within them, discussing the significance of the words the author has used and to what effect. Mention lots of literary features e. These are like buzzwords for whoever will be marking your paper, it shows you understand what literary features are, an important aspect of the course.
If you are struggling to come up with a question write down all of the central issues and themes within your book and see if that gives you some inspiration, for example, a common theme between the two books I studied was imprisonment and that's how I came up with my question. I hope this helps and isn't too confusing. Follow 3 Please help me also. I am not sure of what to write or how to go about the essay.
Follow 4 Original post by anuj Please help me also. Last edited by fairisle13; at Follow 5 Original post by fairisle13 I don't know exactly how much help I'll be because I haven't studied either of the two texts, but see above for general rule of thumb. I would suggest you pick a theme in either of the two books, A Christmas Carol is probably easier to find help for on the net: If you were to do this question perhaps discuss whether the setting is a microcosm and whether the story could be considered a didactic moral message to reader.
Whatever you decide to do justify your response to the question by using quotes from two or three extracts of the book generally page long extracts. Make sure if you directly use any ideas from online that aren't you own that you cite them in your essay.
It may also be of help to you to search for some sample World Literature essays, or maybe ask your teacher if you can see one of last year's essays as a guide for how to set yours out?
Once you come up with a question I'd check it with your teacher to see what they think about the wording etc. Follow 6 Original post by anuj Thank you so much mate. Lets see what happens. I have my IOP today.
Follow 7 Original post by fairisle13 Good luck with it all!
- World Literature Essay “The Jane Austen novel ‘Pride and Prejudice’ is basically concerned with the education of a young heroine” The statement “The Jane Austen .
The Local as the Global: Reflections on Teaching World Literature By Emad Mirmotahari Photo by Kevin Lau The following essay argues for the importance of shifting world literature courses away from “survey” and toward the interrogation of categories of knowledge that typi.
Love, Sex, and the Gods in World Literature Essay Love, Sex, and the Gods in World Literature Literature throughout world history contains many of the same themes and motifs. The works that will be discussed in this paper: Homer’s The Iliad, Aristophanes’ Lysistrata, and Ovid’s Metamophoses, all contain common themes. World Literature Research Papers World literature research papers from Paper Masters are custom written and discuss exactly what you need. World Literature research papers discuss topics ranging from African Literature to Antigone, The Odysee to the Illiad, and all the great classics of literature across the globe.
Essay on world literature due soon? Check free writing samples published at maden.ga or buy custom paper prepared by an expert US writer. If you need to accomplish IB English world literature essay, you will definitely understand the above-mentioned statement. A discovery of word pictures is the main part of literature reading. As it is known, every word picture is a reflection of reality and expression of a writer's ideology coincidently.