Three sources are ci In five pages women of these ancient civilizations are examined in terms of their positions and roles with a discussion of the inf In six pages the women of ancient Greece and Rome are compared with contemporary women's lives. Four sources are cited in the bib In nine pages the attitudes the Ancient Greeks had regarding death are explored in terms of both beliefs and rituals.
In five pages this paper discusses Ancient Greek men and women with comparisons also made between Sparta and Athens. This paper examines how in the mythology of these ancient civilizations women played an important role in ten pages.
Need A College Level Paper? Please enter a keyword or topic phrase to perform a search. Art of Ancient Greece In four pages the art of ancient Greece is contemplated in terms of its influential architecture, paintings, and sculptures. Ancient Greece and Education In five pages this research paper discusses education in ancient Greece with a consideration of the systems in Sparta and Athens a Ancient Greece and the Worshippers of Zeus This paper examines the transformation of Zeus's worshippers and its impact upon the society of ancient Greece in four pages.
Temple Priests of Ancient Greece In six pages the ancient Grecian religion is discussed in terms of examining the different roles of the priests and the significan Ancient Greece's Stoic Philosophy In fourteen pages this paper examines the Stoic school of philosophy that developed in ancient Greeks in a consideration of the ph Democracy of Ancient Greece In this paper consisting of five pages the development of democracy in ancient Greece is considered in terms of the evolution of i Music of Ancient Greece and Rome In seven pages the music, instruments, and sophisticated playing of music reflected in both of these ancient cultures are examined Ancient Greece Essays In eight pages classical Greek civilization is examined in a series of brief independent essays that include astrology and the Gre Society of Ancient Greece and Women This paper examines how women in Ancient Greek society were portrayed in a comparative analysis of the plays Lysistrata by Aristop Comparison Between the Comedies of Ancient Greece and Rome In five pages this paper examines the literary comedies of famous writers of ancient Greece and Rome such as Terence, Plautus and Fashion of Ancient Greece, Symmetria and Simplicity In ten pages this paper discusses the social importance of the fashions of ancient Greece from the Minoan and Mycenaean Periods th For example, when Lysistrata and Calonice were talking, Calonice lamented about her lack of time:.
Because her daily tasks are limited to household duties, her overall autonomy is greatly diminished. Obedience and compliance were their expected traits when dealing with men. Indeed, the play depicts women as the weaker sex in many facets of individuality. For instance, since the women plan to negotiate with the men on the basis of depriving them of sex, this is a clear form of power. However, it is a passive means and is indicative of physical allure, a trait that is feminine and lacking authority.
Even with this power, characters like Calonice are depicted as being too weak to even exercise it properly:. Such a statement suggests that women are subject to the will of their physical desires and cannot control them. It also shows that women are truly the weaker sex because they cannot control their bodily drives. This is sharply contrasted to men, who are usually characterized in Greek culture as strong, reserved and in control. Lysistrata lamented this facet of women in Greece by arguing,.
It's no wonder men write tragedies about us. This marginalization of women in literature would continue throughout history and is particularly evident in the works of William Shakespeare. The play also clarified Greek culture and its gender norms by detailing how men used their physical power and violence to undermine women.
Even the brace Lysistrata acknowledged that men have an upper hand in this respect. When the other women asked what to do if their men beat them, she replied by lamenting that:. Such submission to male authority shows that violence and physical means of coercion were the norm. Women had no choice but to accept it and deal with the repercussions.
Later in the play, there were also numerous instances where men threatened women with physical violence directly. For instance, when the Chorus reflected shared dialogue with women, a question posed was:. This paints Greek culture in a light that undermines women and their freedoms. The introduction of the first European watermarks in Fabriano was linked to applying metal wires on a cover laid against the mould which was used for forming the paper.
They adapted the waterwheels from the fuller's mills to drive a series of three wooden hammers per trough. The hammers were raised by their heads by cams fixed to a waterwheel's axle made from a large tree trunk. In the Americas, archaeological evidence indicates that a similar bark-paper writing material was used by the Mayans no later than the 5th century AD.
The paper is created by boiling and pounding the inner bark of trees, until the material becomes suitable for art and writing. These materials made from pounded reeds and bark are technically not true paper , which is made from pulp, rags, and fibers of plants and cellulose.
European papermaking spread to the Americas first in Mexico by and then in Philadelphia by The use of human and animal powered mills was known to Chinese and Muslim papermakers. However, evidence for water-powered paper mills is elusive among both prior to the 11th century. Donald Hill has identified a possible reference to a water-powered paper mill in Samarkand , in the 11th-century work of the Persian scholar Abu Rayhan Biruni , but concludes that the passage is "too brief to enable us to say with certainty" that it refers to a water-powered paper mill.
Clear evidence of a water-powered paper mill dates to in the Spanish Kingdom of Aragon. The first paper mill north of the Alps was established in Nuremberg by Ulman Stromer in ; it is later depicted in the lavishly illustrated Nuremberg Chronicle.
Before the industrialisation of the paper production the most common fibre source was recycled fibres from used textiles, called rags. The rags were from hemp , linen and cotton.
It was not until the introduction of wood pulp in that paper production was not dependent on recycled materials from ragpickers. Although cheaper than vellum, paper remained expensive, at least in book-sized quantities, through the centuries, until the advent of steam-driven paper making machines in the 19th century, which could make paper with fibres from wood pulp.
Although older machines predated it, the Fourdrinier papermaking machine became the basis for most modern papermaking. Nicholas Louis Robert of Essonnes , France , was granted a patent for a continuous paper making machine in At the time he was working for Leger Didot with whom he quarrelled over the ownership of the invention. Didot sent his brother-in-law, John Gamble, to meet Sealy and Henry Fourdrinier , stationers of London , who agreed to finance the project.
Gamble was granted British patent on 20 October With the help particularly of Bryan Donkin , a skilled and ingenious mechanic, an improved version of the Robert original was installed at Frogmore Paper Mill , Hertfordshire , in , followed by another in A third machine was installed at the Fourdriniers' own mill at Two Waters. The Fourdriniers also bought a mill at St Neots intending to install two machines there and the process and machines continued to develop.
However, experiments with wood showed no real results in the late 18th century and at the start of the 19th century. By , Matthias Koops in London, England further investigated the idea of using wood to make paper, and in he wrote and published a book titled Historical account of the substances which have been used to describe events, and to convey ideas, from the earliest date, to the invention of paper.
No pages were fabricated using the pulping method from either rags or wood. He received financial support from the royal family to make his printing machines and acquire the materials and infrastructure needed to start his printing business.
But his enterprise was short lived. Only a few years following his first and only printed book the one he wrote and printed , he went bankrupt. The book was very well done strong and had a fine appearance , but it was very costly. Then in the s and s, two men on two different continents took up the challenge, but from a totally new perspective. Both Friedrich Gottlob Keller and Charles Fenerty began experiments with wood but using the same technique used in paper making; instead of pulping rags, they thought about pulping wood.
And at about the same time, by mid, they announced their findings. They invented a machine which extracted the fibres from wood exactly as with rags and made paper from it.
Charles Fenerty also bleached the pulp so that the paper was white. This started a new era for paper making. By the end of the 19th-century almost all printers in the western world were using wood in lieu of rags to make paper.
Together with the invention of the practical fountain pen and the mass-produced pencil of the same period, and in conjunction with the advent of the steam driven rotary printing press , wood based paper caused a major transformation of the 19th century economy and society in industrialized countries.
With the introduction of cheaper paper, schoolbooks, fiction, non-fiction, and newspapers became gradually available by Cheap wood based paper also meant that keeping personal diaries or writing letters became possible and so, by , the clerk , or writer, ceased to be a high-status job. The original wood-based paper was acidic due to the use of alum and more prone to disintegrate over time, through processes known as slow fires. Documents written on more expensive rag paper were more stable.
Mass-market paperback books still use these cheaper mechanical papers see below , but book publishers can now use acid-free paper for hardback and trade paperback books.
Determining the provenance of paper is a complex process that can be done in a variety of ways. The easiest way is using a known sheet of paper as an exemplar. Using known sheets can produce an exact identification. Next, comparing watermarks with those contained in catalogs or trade listings can yield useful results. Inspecting the surface can also determine age and location by looking for distinct marks from the production process.
Chemical and fiber analysis can be used to establish date of creation and perhaps location. It has also become universal to talk of paper "mills" even of such mills at Fez! All our evidence points to non-hydraulic hand production, however, at springs away from rivers which it could pollute. European papermaking differed from its precursors in the mechanization of the process and in the application of water power.
Gimpel goes on to say: Paper had traveled nearly halfway around the world, but no culture or civilization on its route had tried to mechanize its manufacture. Indeed, Muslim authors in general call any "paper manufactory" a wiraqah — not a "mill" tahun. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
The word "paper" is etymologically derived from papyrus, Ancient Greek for the Cyperus papyrus plant. Papyrus is a thick, paper-like material produced from the pith of the Cyperus papyrus plant which was used in ancient Egypt and other Mediterranean societies for writing long before paper was used in China.
- Ancient Greek Religion: Mycenaean to Classical Period Ancient Greece has been a religion- centered culture since the earliest period of habitation in Greece, the Pre .
Ancient Greece Research Paper This sample Ancient Greece Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. Twelve Research Paper Ideas on Ancient Greece Ancient Greece is a popular field of study for many disciplines, especially art and history. In fact, depending on your discipline, you may be asked to write a research paper.
However, gender relations in ancient Greece still reflected a tendency to undermine women and limit their autonomy. While this was not the case throughout the whole of Greece, as some regions such as Crete prized the roles and contribution of women to society in daily life, it represents the predominant views of the time.5/5(1). Ancient Greece term papers available at maden.ga, the largest free term paper community.