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❶Earlier, it used to be done by a conventional method—gauge to gauge or discharge correlation by which future gauges at forecast points are estimated on the basis of gauge discharge observed at some upstream station.

Natural Disasters Essay Examples

How to Outline Your Essay on Natural Disasters
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The world is a surprisingly dangerous place and anyone could suffer due to a natural catastrophic event that occurs totally at random. This could be anything from a lightning strike to a volcanic eruption. Such natural events have been known to kill and injure many thousands of people and are thus categorized as being natural disasters.

So if you were going to write a natural disaster essay where would you start? Well like many things the beginning is the best place; start with your introduction and inform the reader what a natural disaster is. Tell them that often there is nothing that can be done to prevent them and no one is to blame for them as they are purely acts of nature that we cannot control. Your natural disasters essay will be much easier to write if you take the time to map out your outline first.

Your outline allows you to understand what the structure of your essay will be and what subjects you should cover within each section.

Like a map, it helps you to get to your destination quickly without getting lost. A simple outline can save you a huge amount of time within the writing process and will often make your essay far more cohesive as well as easier to write. Start with what you want to cover within each of the three main sections, we have already discussed your introduction.

The main body should cover a number of different types of natural disasters, you should write a full paragraph describing the causes and effects of each so that the reader can gain a full appreciation for the power of nature and how small we are when compared to it. This is only a very small fraction of the major natural disasters that have affected mankind within the last century.

There have been natural disasters that have occurred in every country on every continent in the world that you could write about for your natural disasters essay.

Your summary should sum up all of these disasters and you should then make some personal comments about how we could prevent harm from some of these in the future or even suggest disasters that may have a bigger impact on us in the future. The Texas Hurricane Harvey may be a disaster that is recent but it far from the worst that has affected people in recent years. The Indian Ocean tsunami in killed almost thousand people while in a cyclone in what is now Bangladesh killed as many as half a million people.

Even areas which have never known floods in the past are now affected. The NFC estimates that 40 million hectares are flood-prone of which 32 million hectares can be protected.

Some such Centrally-sponsored schemes are: The Central government provides special assistance to the Border States and north eastern states for taking up some special priority works. A tsunami is a series of travelling ocean waves which are set off by geological disturbances near the floor of the ocean. The waves of very, very long wavelengths and period rush across the ocean and increase their momentum over a stretch of thousands of kilometers.

Some tsunamis may appear as a tide but they are not tidal waves in reality. While tides are caused by gravitational influences of the moon, sun and the planets, tsunamis are seismic sea waves. That is, they are related to an earthquake- related mechanism of generation. Tsunamis are usually a result of earthquakes, but may be at times caused by landslides or volcanic eruption or, very rarely, a large meteorite impact on the ocean.

The tsunami can be understood at the basic level by looking at the series of concentric ripples formed in a lake when a stone is thrown into it. A tsunami is like those ripples but caused by a disturbance much greater in magnitude. Tsunamis are shallow-water waves different from the wind-generated waves which usually have a period of five to twenty seconds which refers to the time between two successional waves of about to metres.

They have a period in the range of ten minutes to two hours and a wavelength exceeding km. The rate of energy loss of a wave is inversely related to its wavelength. So tsunamis lose little energy as they propagate as they have a very large wavelength. So they will travel at high speeds in deep waters and travel great distances as well losing little energy. A tsunami that occurs metres deep in water has a speed of km per hour.

At m, it travels at Ion per hour. It travels at different speeds in water: As an average ocean depth of m is assumed, one talks of tsunamis as having an average speed of about km per hour.

The long gravity tsunami waves are caused by two interacting processes. There is the slope of the sea surface which creates a horizontal pressure force.

Then there is the piling up or lowering of sea surface as water moves in varying speeds in the direction that the wave form is moving. These processes together create propagating waves.

A tsunami can be caused by any disturbance that displaces a large water mass from its equilibrium position. An undersea earthquake causes buckling of the sea floor, something that occurs at subduction zones, places where drifting plates that constitute the outer shell of the earth converge and the heavier oceanic plate dips below the lighter continents.

As a plate plunges into the interior of the earth it gets stuck against the edge of a continental plate for a while, when stresses build up, then the locked zone gives way. Parts of the ocean floor then snap upward and other areas sink downward.

In the instant after the quake, the sea surface shape resembles the contours of the seafloor. But then gravity acts to return the sea surface to its original shape. The ripples then race outward and a tsunami is caused. There were 17 tsunamis in the Pacific from to which resulted in 1, deaths.

During a submarine landslide, the equilibrium sea-level is altered by sediment moving along the floor of the sea. Gravitational forces then propagate a tsunami. Again, a marine volcanic eruption can generate an impulsive force that displaces the water column and gives birth to a tsunami. Above water landslides and objects in space are capable of disturbing the water when the falling debris, like meteorites, displace the water from its equilibrium position.

As a tsunami leaves deep waters and propagates into the shallow waters, it transforms. This is because as the depth of the water decreases, the speed of the tsunami reduces. But the change of total energy of the tsunami remains constant. With decrease in speed, height of the tsunami wave grows. Tsunami attacks can come in different forms depending upon the geometry of the seafloor warping that first caused the waves. Sometimes, the sea seems to at first draw a breath but then this withdrawal is followed by arrival of the crest of a tsunami wave.

Tsunamis have been known to occur suddenly without warning. The water level on the shore rises to many metres: Waves can be large and violent in one coastal area while another is not affected. Areas can be flooded inland to metres or more; when tsunami waves retreat, they carry things and people out to sea. Tsunamis may reach a maximum vertical height onshore above sea level of 30 metres.

The size of the tsunami waves is determined by the quantum of deformation of the sea floor. Greater the vertical displacement, greater will be the wave size.

For tsunamis to occur, earthquakes must happen underneath or near the ocean. They must be large and create movements in the ocean floor. Subduction zones off Chile, Nicaragua, Mexico and Indonesia have created killer tsunamis.

The Pacific among the oceans has witnessed most number of tsunamis over since One of the deadliest tsunamis occurred in Asia on December 26, It was triggered by the most powerful earthquake recorded in the past four decades—one whose magnitude was 8. A tsunami with a magnitude 9.

Tsunamis and earthquakes can cause changes in geography. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands may have moved by about 1. The warning of an oncoming tsunami cannot be obtained by merely detecting an earthquake in the seas; it involves a number of complex steps which have to be completed in a systematic and quick fashion.

It was in , that the international warning system was started. Computer systems at the Pacific Tsunami Warning Centre PTWC in Hawaii monitor data from seismic stations in the USA and elsewhere warning is issued when an earthquake is shallow, located under the sea or close to it and has a magnitude that is more than a pre-determined threshold. Each gauge has a very sensitive pressure recorder on the sea floor in which can detect the change in the height of the ocean it even if it is by just one cm.

The data is transmitted acoustically to a surface buoy which then relays it over satellite to the warning centre. There are seven DART gauges deployed at present and four more are being planned.

PTWC has improved its performance rapidly as high-quality seismic data has been made available to it. The time it needed to issue a warning has fallen from up to 90 minutes some six years ago to 25 minutes or even less today. The Indian Ocean is not prone to tsunamis. Only two have occurred in this ocean including one on December 26, India has been a leader in the initiative to develop a reliable tsunami warning system for the ocean. It has decided to set up a sophisticated system for detecting deep sea movements and develop a network with the countries in the Indian Ocean region for sharing information on tsunamis.

It will have pressure sensors to detect the water movement. The sensors will be linked to the satellite that will relay information to the earth station. Some more sensors would be installed later and the data buoys would be linked to the system that would record changes in the water level. The Indian government plans to set up a network with Indonesia, Myanmar and Thailand which would calculate the magnitude and intensity of tsunamis from the data available to it.

DART-type gauges will be installed by the government and it will join 26 countries in a network that warn each other about tsunamis. A state-of-the-art National Tsunami Early Warning Centre, which has the capability to detect earthquakes of more than 6 magnitude in the Indian Ocean was inaugurated in in India. The system comprises a real-time network of seismic stations, bottom pressure recorders BPRs , and 30 tide gauges to detect tsunamigenic earthquakes and monitor tsunamis.

Many regions in India are highly vulnerable to natural and other disasters on account of geological conditions. Disaster management has therefore emerged as a high priority. Going beyond the historical focus on relief and rehabilitation after the catastrophe, there is a need to look ahead and plan for disaster preparedness and mitigation. So, the development process needs to be sensitive towards disaster prevention, preparedness as well as mitigation to ensure that periodic shocks to development efforts are minimised.

About 60 per cent of the landmass in India is susceptible to earthquakes and over 8 per cent is prone to floods. Of the nearly 7, km long coastline, more than 5, km is prone to cyclones. Around 68 per cent area is also susceptible to drought. All this entails huge economic losses and causes developmental setbacks.

The Tenth Five Year Plan recognised disaster management as a development issue for the first time. It was prepared in the backdrop of the Orissa super cyclone and the massive Gujarat earthquake Later the Tsunami in the Indian Ocean which devastated coastal communities in Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Puducherry and Andaman in became the tipping point for initiating a series of steps by the government.

India became one of the first countries to declare a national commitment to set up appropriate institutional mechanisms for more effective disaster management at the national, state and district levels. The Plan devoted a separate article to disaster management and made a number of important prescriptions to mainstream disaster risk reduction into the process of development.

The prescriptions were broadly divided into three categories:. Policy guidelines at macro level to inform and guide the preparation and implementation of development plans-across sectors. Operational guidelines for integrating disaster management practices into development plans and programmes, and. The significant initiatives on disaster management taken during the Plan period included the following:.

The Disaster Management Act, was enacted for establishing requisite institutional mechanisms for drawing up and monitoring the implementation of disaster management plans, and for undertaking a holistic, coordinated, and prompt response to any disaster situation.

Setting up of the National Disaster Management Authority NDMA as an apex body responsible for laying down of policies, plans and guidelines on disaster management so as to ensure timely and effective response to disasters.

The guidelines on management of earthquake, chemical disasters, and chemical industrial disasters were finalised during the Plan period. The other states and UTs are in the process of constituting the same. An eight battalion-strong National Disaster Response Force NDRF was set up comprising specialised response teams on various types of disasters of which around 72 are for nuclear, biological, and chemical NBC disasters.

Revamping of the civil defence set-up to strengthen local efforts for disaster preparedness and effective response. Fire services also strengthened and modernised to a multi-hazard response force. Inclusion of disaster management in the curriculum of middle and secondary school education.

The subject has also been included in the post-induction and in-service training of civil and police officers. Modules have also been identified to include disaster management aspects in the course curriculum for engineering, architecture, and medical degrees.

Model-building by-laws for town and country planning legislations, land use zonation, development control legislations were finalised. The Bureau of Indian Standards issued building codes for construction of different types of buildings in different seismic zones in India. Implementation of the National Programme for Capacity Building of Engineers in Earthquake Risk Management to train 10, engineers and 10, architects on safe construction techniques and architectural practices.

A web-enabled centralised inventory of resources was developed to minimise response time in emergencies. Over 1, 10, records from districts have already been uploaded. The Eleventh Plan aims at consolidating the entire process of disaster management by giving impetus to projects and programmes that develop and nurture the culture of safety and integration of disaster prevention and mitigation into the development process.

Conceptualisation of hazard scenarios and associated vulnerability and risk assessments in a given situation will necessarily have to depend on available maps, master plans and building and land use regulations, National Building Code of India, and the various Safety Standards and Codes of the Bureau of Indian Standards. The guidelines will cover the following aspects in the Eleventh Plan:.

All schemes for generating basic input data for hazard and vulnerability impact analysis to be made operational. Mainstreaming disaster reduction into already approved projects in sectors of education, housing, infrastructure, urban development, and the like.

Design of school buildings under the programme would include hazard resistant features, in multi-hazard prone earthquake, cyclone, flood , high-risk areas. Similarly, existing infrastructure like bridges and roads will also be strengthened and upgraded to mitigate disaster at a subsequent stage.

Outside the framework of Plan schemes, many innovative measures will also be adopted to encourage disaster risk reduction measures in the corporate sector, non-government organisations, and among individuals. Fiscal measures like rebates on income and property tax for retrofitting unsafe buildings, compulsory risk insurance for bank loan on all types of properties will also be introduced to mobilise resources for safe construction and retrofitting of existing constructions in all disaster prone areas.

Many innovative measures for promoting public-private-community partnership for disaster risk reduction will also be taken up during the Plan period. Some of the things that can start the wildfires can be totally natural, while others can be manmade, but the speed at which they spread is entirely down to nature.

The reasons that they spread so quickly are prolonged hot, dry weather, where the vegetation dries out, which is why they often take place in woodland. Get more free essays Which categories were useful to you? Most useful resources for students: While being a lecturer in several high school institutions Lona founded an online educational project Tutorsclass. I've worked as a volunteer in many different international social projects and as a camp counselor every summer. Find more useful services for students Free plagiarism check Check your paper for free On-line tool.

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Mar 11,  · .. .8 Natural disasters introduction A natural disaster is the effect of a natural hazard (e.g., flood, tornado, hurricane, volcanic eruption, earthquake, heatwave, or landslide).

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Natural disasters happen all over the world, and they can be utterly devastating for people’s lives and the environments in which they live.

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This essay seeks to provide an overview of insurance specifically on assessment, measurement and management of both man-made risks and natural disaster risks. The essay further highlights the formulas adopted in measuring man-made risks. How to Outline Your Essay on Natural Disasters. Your natural disasters essay will be much easier to write if you take the time to map out your outline first. Your outline allows you to understand what the structure of your essay will be and what subjects you should cover within each section.5/5.

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A natural disaster is unforeseen, severe and immediate. Pollution, ozone depletion in the stratosphere and global warming come in this category. Natural disasters include cyclones, earthquakes, floods, drought (though these two are now being increasingly considered ‘man- made’ disasters) heat and cold waves, landslides, avalanches, flash floods, severe thunder­storms, hail, low level wind shears, and . The responses to natural disasters have been to invest in early warning systems that tend to protect lives and properties (FEMA, Disasters ). People should manage natural disasters by bringing new emphasis to research, preparedness, response, and recovery.