The life-span perspective can easily be linked to what could be considered a sub-category or a category that can be placed inside the life-span cycle.
Family of origin and family of choice can be altered and influenced by environmental factors. Other aspects include social background, cultural norms, and even national identity. A counselor can guide a person to examining the correlation between environment and societal attitudes, and then the impact on his or her own development. Providing a social support such as counseling from a life-span perspective must include physical context.
Age is an obvious, but significant, biological concern. Helping an individual understand their current crisis may offer many reassurances, but specifically realizing that every stage of life has an optimal time. He or she will develop toward each new stage, building upon and learning from the previous stages. With a focus on a life-long growth process, a counselor can help an individual benefit from even the developmental tasks he or she feels were resolved unsuccessfully.
A life-span perspective in counseling should allow that we inherit more than physical traits from our biological parents.
Life-span development is a multi-faceted approach to counseling. I expect these theories to help me determine a specialty in my future practice, relying on the overlap and complexity of working in terms of an entire human life. The function that the family structure provides is to procreate, both create and reduce jobs and to raise children and teach them how to become respectable members of society.
Another example of an existing structure in our society is poverty. By maintaining a certain level of poverty, it is possible to keep inflation down, a function that helps the middle class, and reduce wages. The structures of the family varies from society to society, the smallest family group is the nuclear family, and consists of a husband and wife, and the immature offspring , units larger than the nuclear family are known as extended families, and can be seen as extensions of the nuclear family.
This can have vertical extensions, for example, older members of the family living in the same household. A grandmother or grandfather, and also can have horizontal extensions; an example of this would be a brother-in-law or sister-in-law of the spouses living in the same house. Functionalists felt that the nuclear family was most adapted to the functionalist theory, as it is insular and mobile therefore aiding society, by keeping up with economic movement, but in the process becoming detached from the extended family support.
The social exchange theory is based entirely on a give and take relationship. A successful relationship benefits both people involved. The social exchange theory implies that both people involved are satisfied with the organization of their relationship. They maintained the relationship because of the benefits they both gain from it.
The benefits improved their self interests in one another. I personally agree with this idea of cohabitation being as valid as marriage. Many couples choose to live together like a marriage, until they feel ready to be married. This is good because then almost nothing changes. They had already been living together, so they see each other ion everyday situations.
Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. Text Revision 4th ed. Differentiation between low anxiety, high anxiety, and repression of anxiety by autonomic-facial-verbal patterns of behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45 6 , Retrieved November 9, , doi: The efficacy of motivational interviewing: A meta analysis of controlled clinical trials. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71, These books were not only about David's story but about how he managed to survive his abusive mother and find himself while in foster care.
Not only do you find yourself totally enthralled with these books you also began to become emotionally involved as well Well-being has been a topic of growing interest in recent years, however Thomas , cited in Dodge, et al.
The term has multiple meanings and definitions in relation to different concepts, leading Seedhouse to determine that an overall concept of well-being would be an empty notion Manning-Morton, Jean Piaget's theory of cognitive development is based on his belief that children are active learners and cognitive development is a process taught through interaction with the environment, intelligence was believed to be a fixed trait and that children were simply less intelligent than adults.
McLeod says that instead of measuring children's ability to solve problems, count and spell to There is multiple legislation governing health, safety and risk management in residential childcare settings. This legislation specifies roles and responsibilities of all people and services that are involved in a child care.
The aim of these regulations is to minimise harm and danger by managing potential hazards and risks. Whatever sort of working or living environment one can be in, there is always the possibility Sorry, but copying text is forbidden on this website. If you need this or any other sample, we can send it to you via email.
Choose an optimal rate and be sure to get the unlimited number of samples immediately without having to wait in the waiting list. Alone among the major theorists, Vygotsky believed that learning came first, and caused development.
These theories have implications for management. Generally, an analysis of these theories has resulted in the development of two competing theories important to management of people in organizations, namely, Theory X and Theory Y.
Theory X represents a negative view of human nature that assumes individuals generally islike work, are irresponsible, and require close supervision to do their jobs Barnett, This is a very mechanistic view of management. Theory Y denotes a positive view of human nature and assumes individuals are generally industrious, creative, and able to assume responsibility and exercise self-control in their jobs Barnett, Theory Y has as its core assumption that the physical and mental effort involved in work is natural and that individuals actively seek to engage in work Barnett, It also assumes that that close supervision and the treat of punishment are not the only means or even the best means for inducing employees to exert positive effort; that the ability to be innovative and creative exists among a large, rather than a small segment of the population; and that rather than valuing security above all other rewards associated with work, individuals desire rewards that satisfy their self-esteem and self-actualization needs Barnett, Theory Y is an organic view of management.
One would expect, then, that managers holding assumptions about human nature that are consistent with Theory X might exhibit a managerial style that is quite different than managers who hold assumptions consistent with Theory Y Barnett, The Concept of Multiple Intelligences The concept of multiple intelligences also has strong implications for managerial behavior.
In , Howard Gardner, a Harvard University professor and psychologist, began to suggest that intelligence is multidimensional. This suggests that in addition to being born with various MI, some of their intelligences are potentially determined by the cultural environment in which they are ocialized, including their work environment Weller, If managers encourage team members to increasingly use their preferred modes of intelligences, the effort and creativity that are likely to follow could lead to enhanced team productivity Green et al.
Therefore, the challenge for most managers will be to find ways to maximize the human potential that each individual brings to the eam Green et al. Implicit in both MIM and Theory Y is the belief that workers should have the freedom to contribute their knowledge and intelligences to the overall benefit of the organization, and not just perform work in a mindless, mechanical way.
Managers should value the knowledge and intelligences of employees, which eventually leads to the generation of diverse ideas on how to improve work to be performed, which leads to greater productivity. The use of multiple intelligences, including linguistic brainstorming, debates, scenarios, etc. This forms the foundation for a knowledge-based organization, and will thrive in a Theory Y organizational setting. Thinkers, who are free to explore their ideas, will be challenged in a Theory X setting, while thinkers are restricted from communicating and exploring their ideas, will be challenged in a Theory Y setting.
Each stage involves a crisis of two opposing emotional forces businessball. In Stage 3, initiative is the capacity to devise actions or projects, and a confidence and belief that it is okay to do so, even with a risk of failure businessballs. In Stage 4, industry refers to purposeful or meaningful activity businessballs.
However, if the key source of value in the 21st century organization is to be derived from the workforce itself, an inversion of the dominant approach will be needed Kochan, et al. We will need to look at organizations from the perspective of where value is created — people and the work itself Kochan, et al, Such an inversion will lead to a transformation in the management and organization of work, workers, and knowledge Kochan, et al. Accomplishing this inversion is among the most important challenges facing organization and management theory, research, teaching, and practice today Kochan, et al.
With the knowledge gained from human development theories, how can organizations move to toward a human capital and knowledge-based model of organizing? The following is a framework for managing people in a knowledge-based organization: Labor Costs or Human Assets? Conventional economic and organization theory views labor as a cost to be controlled Kochan, et al.
Moreover, since labor cannot be separated from its human motivation and free will, incentives are needed to ensure employees will commit their full energies and skills to the goals of the organization Kochan, et al.
Labor also brings its own interests and sources of power to the organization Kochan, et al. Therefore, efforts on the part of mployees to use their collective power by forming unions or other organizations to represent their own interests need to be discouraged or defeated Kochan, et al. A human capital, knowledge-based perspective understands workers as human assets who create the value of the organization Kochan, et al.
By joining and staying in the organization, employees invest and put at risk some of their human capital Kochan, et al. By taking advantage of opportunities for continued learning and development, their human capital is deepened and expanded Kochan, et al. Since employees have interests and obligations outside of work — to their professions, families, communities, and themselves — they cannot and do not wish to commit their full energies to the organization Kochan, et al.
Therefore, efforts are needed to integrate work and personal aspects of life Kochan, et al. Employees also bring a variety of expectations to their jobs, including an interest in having meaningful influence and voice in matters that are important to them Kochan, et al.
At the same time, employers can reasonably expect employees and their representative organizations to contribute o the continued viability and effectiveness of the enterprise Kochan, et al. Therefore, efforts are needed to engage employees individually and collectively in ways that simultaneously address organizational and individual interests and expectations Kochan, et al.
Industrial or Knowledge-Based Systems? The early years of the 20th century witnessed the gradual movement from agrarian and craft to an industrial model of work organization Kochan, et al. The latter part of the century has witnessed efforts to continue the transformation from the industrial to a knowledge- ased system of work organization Kochan, et al.
That transformation process continues today Kochan, et al. The industrial model created sharp legal and status distinctions between managers who conceived and directed how work was done and non-managers who executed their tasks as directed Kochan, et al. Productivity was maximized by organizing tasks into well-defined jobs and functions Kochan, et al.
Efficiency gains were achieved through increased specialization and formalization of reporting relationships, romotion paths, and compensation rules Kochan, et al. The transformation in work systems underway today involves efforts to shift from industrial to knowledge-based work systems that blur the lines between managerial and non-managerial work Kochan, et al. These systems assume that in a knowledge-based economy, high levels of performance can only be achieved by organizing work in ways that allow workers to utilize and deepen their knowledge and skills, while working collaboratively on multiple, temporary projects to accomplish flexible and innovative operations Kochan, et al.
As a result, there is an emphasis on horizontal interrelationships among diverse groups both internal and external , and the coordinated use of teams, cross-functional task forces, and cross-organizational alliances and networks Kochan, et al.
A Mechanistic or Integrative Perspective? Technology is conventionally viewed as a physical asset — a piece of machinery or an information system — that is initially developed and designed by technical experts and then implemented for use by the workforce Kochan, et al.
This view emphasizes the echanistic dimensions of the technology, while disregarding or attempting to eliminate the human side Kochan, et al. For example, a major function of technology in this view is to reduce reliance on human inputs — both the quantity of labor and the variance error that can result from human judgment, fatigue, lack of motivation, or direct challenges or conflicts with management decisions or actions Kochan, et al. Even today, the dominant assumption in much of the machine tool industry, for example, involves designing people out of the process — even at the expense of flexibility and innovation Kochan, et al.
This relational view of technology recognizes that technological outcomes are highly contingent and emergent — depending on how the technical capabilities interact with human hoices, political actions, cultural norms, and learning opportunities over time Kochan, et al.
In this view, benefits from technologies can only be realized when the technical and social dimensions are integrated through the design, implementation, and ongoing adaptation of the technologies employed in an organization Kochan, et al. Leadership is conventionally viewed as being vested primarily in the role of the CEO and other top executives Kochan, et al.
Human development theories are models intended to account for how and why people become, as they are (Thomas ). Theories provide the framework to clarify and organize existing observations and to try to explain and predict human behaviour (Schroeder, )/5(16).
Human Development Theories In addition to Freud’s psychodynamic theory there are four other human development philosophies; biological, cognitive, behavioral and systems model. Even though these theories differ they all contain the same basic assumptions.
This essay will discuss some of the theories used to explain human growth and development and discuss the pros and cons of each theory in relation to different life stages and show how each theory can be applied to social work practice. Human development theories Essay Sample. Over the years, there have been dozens of psychologists who have proposed hundreds of different theories regarding human development. These theories are read by educational professionals, who incorporate the parts of the theories that they believe in, into their own personal philosophy.
Human development theories. Human Development Theories. INTRODUCTION. Human development theories are models intended to account for how and why people become, as they are (Thomas ). Theories provide the framework to clarify and organize existing observations and to try to explain and predict human behaviour (Schroeder, . Theories of Development Essay - Theories of Development There are many branches of psychology. The field of human development is divided into five theory groups. The theory groups are Psychodynamic, Cognitive, Systems, Biological and Behavioral. Each theory group has many contributing theorists.