Only very few libraries in the Tang and Song held more than one or two thousand titles a size not even matched by the manuscript collections of the grandest of the great cathedral libraries in Europe.
However despite the initial advantage afforded to China by the paper medium, by the 9th century its spread and development in the middle east had closed the gap between the two regions.
Between the 9th to early 12th centuries, libraries in Cairo, Baghdad, and Cordoba held collections larger than even the ones in China, and dwarfed those in Europe. From about the maturation of paper making and printing in Southern Europe also had an effect in closing the gap with the Chinese. The Venetian Domenico Grimani 's collection numbered 15, volumes by the time of his death in After , European collections completely overtook those in China. The Bibliotheca Augusta numbered 60, volumes in and surged to , in In the s the Bibliotheque du Roi numbered 80, books and the Cambridge University 40, in After , libraries in North America also began to overtake those of China, and toward the end of the century, Thomas Jefferson 's private collection numbered 4, titles in 6, volumes.
The European advantage only increased further into the 19th century as national collections in Europe and America exceeded a million volumes while a few private collections, such as that of Lord Action, reached 70, European book production began to catch up with China after the introduction of the mechanical printing press in the mid fifteenth century.
Reliable figures of the number of imprints of each edition are as hard to find in Europe as they are in China, but one result of the spread of printing in Europe was that public and private libraries were able to build up their collections and for the first time in over a thousand years they began to match and then overtake the largest libraries in China. Paper became central to the three arts of China — poetry, painting, and calligraphy. In later times paper constituted one of the 'Four Treasures of the Scholar's Studio,' alongside the brush, the ink, and the inkstone.
After its origin in central China , the production and use of paper spread steadily. It is clear that paper was used at Dunhuang by AD , in Loulan in the modern-day province of Xinjiang by , and in Turpan by Paper was concurrently introduced in Japan sometime between the years and Paper spread to Vietnam in the 3rd century.
Paper spread to Korea in the 4th century. Paper spread to Japan in the 5th century. Paper spread to India in the 7th century. After the defeat of the Chinese in the Battle of Talas in present day Kyrgyzstan , the invention spread to the Middle East.
The legend goes,  the secret of papermaking was obtained from two Chinese prisoners from the Battle of Talas, which led to the first paper mill in the Islamic world being founded in Samarkand in Sogdia modern-day Uzbekistan. There was a tradition that Muslims would release their prisoners if they could teach ten Muslims any valuable knowledge.
The laborious process of paper making was refined and machinery was designed for bulk manufacturing of paper. Production began in Baghdad , where a method was invented to make a thicker sheet of paper, which helped transform papermaking from an art into a major industry. The Muslims also introduced the use of trip hammers human- or animal-powered in the production of paper, replacing the traditional Chinese mortar and pestle method.
In turn, the trip hammer method was later employed by the Chinese. By the 9th century, Muslims were using paper regularly, although for important works like copies of the revered Qur'an , vellum was still preferred. As paper was less reactive to humidity, the heavy boards were not needed.
By the 12th century in Marrakech in Morocco a street was named "Kutubiyyin" or book sellers which contained more than bookshops. In a Persian traveler visiting markets in Cairo noted that vegetables, spices and hardware were wrapped in paper for the customers after they were sold. Egypt continued with the thicker paper, while Iran became the center of the thinner papers. Papermaking was diffused across the Islamic world, from where it was diffused further west into Europe. The oldest known paper document in the West is the Mozarab Missal of Silos from the 11th century, probably using paper made in the Islamic part of the Iberian Peninsula.
They used hemp and linen rags as a source of fiber. It is clear that France had a paper mill by , and by mills were established in Fabriano , Italy and in Treviso and other northern Italian towns by Papermaking then spread further northwards, with evidence of paper being made in Troyes , France by , in Holland sometime around —, in Mainz , Germany in , and in Nuremberg by in a mill set up by Ulman Stromer. There was a paper mill in Switzerland by and the first mill in England was set up by John Tate in near Stevenage in Hertfordshire ,  but the first commercially successful paper mill in Britain did not occur before when John Spilman set up a mill near Dartford in Kent.
Arab prisoners who settled in a town called Borgo Saraceno in the Italian Province of Ferrara introduced Fabriano artisans in the Province of Ancona [ clarification needed ] the technique of making paper by hand. At the time they were renowned for their wool-weaving and manufacture of cloth.
Fabriano papermakers considered the process of making paper by hand an art form and were able to refine the process to successfully compete with parchment which was the primary medium for writing at the time. They developed the application of stamping hammers to reduce rags to pulp for making paper, sizing paper by means of animal glue , and creating watermarks in the paper during its forming process.
The Fabriano used glue obtained by boiling scrolls or scraps of animal skin to size the paper; it is suggested that this technique was recommended by the local tanneries. The introduction of the first European watermarks in Fabriano was linked to applying metal wires on a cover laid against the mould which was used for forming the paper.
They adapted the waterwheels from the fuller's mills to drive a series of three wooden hammers per trough. The hammers were raised by their heads by cams fixed to a waterwheel's axle made from a large tree trunk.
In the Americas, archaeological evidence indicates that a similar bark-paper writing material was used by the Mayans no later than the 5th century AD. The paper is created by boiling and pounding the inner bark of trees, until the material becomes suitable for art and writing. These materials made from pounded reeds and bark are technically not true paper , which is made from pulp, rags, and fibers of plants and cellulose.
European papermaking spread to the Americas first in Mexico by and then in Philadelphia by The use of human and animal powered mills was known to Chinese and Muslim papermakers.
However, evidence for water-powered paper mills is elusive among both prior to the 11th century. Donald Hill has identified a possible reference to a water-powered paper mill in Samarkand , in the 11th-century work of the Persian scholar Abu Rayhan Biruni , but concludes that the passage is "too brief to enable us to say with certainty" that it refers to a water-powered paper mill.
Clear evidence of a water-powered paper mill dates to in the Spanish Kingdom of Aragon. The first paper mill north of the Alps was established in Nuremberg by Ulman Stromer in ; it is later depicted in the lavishly illustrated Nuremberg Chronicle. Before the industrialisation of the paper production the most common fibre source was recycled fibres from used textiles, called rags. It is better to use your own words and show your own mastery of the material.
That means rewriting and paraphrasing your sources. Check the syllabus whether you may use quotes from your sources or not. If you may use quotes, each one must be properly cited. Any use of another person's words must be properly identified. Not to do so is plagiarism. If you use just a few words you put quotation marks "word" around the borrowed text. If the text is longer than 3 lines, use a block of single-spaced and indented text.
If you edit the quotes somewhat, use the following: Turabian or Chicago Manual of Style format requires specific punctuation and order for your information. It is often the format used by historians who wrote the books of information available for research. Information should be single spaced within the citation.
Preferably, as explained above, they should be at the bottom of the page where the information is used. When citations are located on a page at the end of the text they are called endnotes. The endnotes should be on a separate page, labeled "Endnotes. All citations should be indented on the first line.
Publisher, , A bibliography should list all the sources you have consulted whether cited in a note or not. A biochemist will be aware of how ethanol is made. There are a number of ways in which you can reference the source, but most are based upon variations of MLA and APA style.
Check with your supervisor which exact technique you should be using, and be consistent. If you use one style all of the way through, there should be no problem, but mixing the styles makes things unclear to the reader and may well be punished by your supervisor. For this style, after every paraphrase, you include the surname of the author and the date of writing.
Sargeant, at the end of the sentence. This will allow any readers to find your work in the reference list and check the original source for themselves. There are a few variations, especially with electronic information, but they all follow the same basic structure. If the author has written more than one paper in the same year, then you can use an alphabetical appendix:. Some departments prefer it if you also use page numbers, if possible.
The other difficulty is when there is no author mentioned, and the source was written by an organization. In this case, you use the name of the organization or a recognized abbreviation. The exact abbreviation does not matter too much, as long as it is clear in the bibliography. The same is true of many electronic sources, although be careful that any non-attributed source is reliable.
For multiple authors, it is usual to mention them all the first time, but to use 'et al. If there are six or more authors, you can use the abbreviation straightaway. Occasionally, you may have to use a source that has been referenced in another source. If you can, try to find the original source and use that.
If you cannot obtain this source, then you need to use a two-stage referencing system. Sorgheloos, , as cited in Sargeant,
Both of these styles place bibliographic citations at the bottom of the page as footnotes, or at the end of a paper as endnotes. Both citation styles are equally acceptable, and each has a series of rules for the citation of different kinds of sources, such as books, journal articles, chapters in collected works, etc.
Format and Citations for History Papers This guide is intended as a quick reference to writing papers according to the Chicago Manual of Style, the authority for .
The citation style to use is determined by your professor, or if you are submitting a manuscript, by the journal or publisher. However, each discipline tends to use one or two styles. Anthropology - use Chicago. CITING SOURCES. A citation is the part of your paper that tells your reader where your source information came from. This is one of the most important elements to your paper. In order to evaluate your argument, your reader must be able to consult the same sources you used.
The following suggestions for citations of Internet sources in history and the humanities are derived from the essential principles of academic citation in Kate L. Turabian, A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 5th ed. (Chicago, University of Chicago Press, ).I have also drawn upon suggestions from some of the works listed in the bibliography of additional materials. SAMPLE CHICAGO STYLE PAPER John Doe History Dr. Johnson July 11, Doe 1 The Chicago Style of writing is used for academic writing in the field of Humanities, especially history. Specific guidelines for formatting a paper in Chicago Style are outlined in manuals such as the 16th edition of the Chicago Manual of Style.