All addictions, whether chemical or behavioral, share certain characteristics including salience, compulsive use loss of control , mood modification and the alleviation of distress, tolerance and withdrawal, and the continuation despite negative consequences. The first serious proposal for diagnostic criteria was advanced in by Dr. Since then variations in both name and criteria have been put forward to capture the problem, which is now most popularly known as Internet Addiction Disorder.
Problematic Internet Use PIU [ 21 ], computer addiction, Internet dependence [ 22 ], compulsive Internet use, pathological Internet use [ 23 ], and many other labels can be found in the literature.
Likewise a variety of often overlapping criteria have been proposed and studied, some of which have been validated. However, empirical studies provide an inconsistent set of criteria to define Internet addiction [ 24 ]. For an overview see Byun et al. Beard [ 2 ] recommends that the following five diagnostic criteria are required for a diagnosis of Internet addiction: Additionally, at least one of the following must be present: There has been also been a variety of assessment tools used in evaluation.
The considerable variance of the prevalence rates reported for IAD between 0. In their review Weinstein and Lejoyeux [ 1 ] report that surveys in the United States and Europe have indicated prevalence rates varying between 1.
When activated, dopamine release is increased, along with opiates and other neurochemicals. Internet use may also lead specifically to dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens [ 35 , 36 ], one of the reward structures of the brain specifically involved in other addictions [ 20 ]. An example of the rewarding nature of digital technology use may be captured in the following statement by a 21 year-old male in treatment for IAD:.
No other activity relaxes me or stimulates me like technology. However, when depression hits, I tend to use technology as a way of retreating and isolating. What is so rewarding about Internet and video game use that it could become an addiction? The theory is that digital technology users experience multiple layers of reward when they use various computer applications.
Whatever the application general surfing, pornography, chat rooms, message boards, social networking sites, video games, email, texting, cloud applications and games, etc. Examples of this would be pornography sexual stimulation , video games e. There is increasing evidence that there can be a genetic predisposition to addictive behaviors [ 38 , 39 ].
To increase pleasure, these individuals are more likely to seek greater than average engagement in behaviors that stimulate an increase in dopamine, effectively giving them more reward but placing them at higher risk for addiction.
Many researchers and clinicians have noted that a variety of mental disorders co-occur with IAD. There is debate about which came first, the addiction or the co-occurring disorder [ 18 , 40 ]. The study by Dong et al. But due to the limitations of the study further research is necessary. There is a general consensus that total abstinence from the Internet should not be the goal of the interventions and that instead, an abstinence from problematic applications and a controlled and balanced Internet usage should be achieved [ 6 ].
The following paragraphs illustrate the various treatment options for IAD that exist today. Unless studies examining the efficacy of the illustrated treatments are not available, findings on the efficacy of the presented treatments are also provided. Unfortunately, most of the treatment studies were of low methodological quality and used an intra-group design.
The general lack of treatment studies notwithstanding, there are treatment guidelines reported by clinicians working in the field of IAD. Unfortunately, clinical evidence for the efficacy of these strategies is not mentioned. Some authors examine pharmacological interventions for IAD, perhaps due to the fact that clinicians use psychopharmacology to treat IAD despite the lack of treatment studies addressing the efficacy of pharmacological treatments. Internet usage decreased significantly from a mean of In another study Han, Hwang, and Renshaw [ 48 ] used bupropion a non-tricyclic antidepressant and found a decrease of craving for Internet video game play, total game play time, and cue-induced brain activity in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex after a six week period of bupropion sustained release treatment.
Methylphenidate a psycho stimulant drug was used by Han et al. After eight weeks of treatment, the YIAS-K scores and Internet usage times were significantly reduced and the authors cautiously suggest that methylphenidate might be evaluated as a potential treatment of IAD. According to a study by Shapira et al. In addition to these studies, there are some case reports of patients treated with escitalopram [ 45 ], citalopram SSRI - quetiapine antipsychotic combination [ 43 ] and naltrexone an opioid receptor antagonist [ 51 ].
A few authors mentioned that physical exercise could compensate the decrease of the dopamine level due to decreased online usage [ 52 ]. In addition, sports exercise prescriptions used in the course of cognitive behavioral group therapy may enhance the effect of the intervention for IAD [ 53 ]. Motivational interviewing MI is a client-centered yet directive method for enhancing intrinsic motivation to change by exploring and resolving client ambivalence [ 54 ].
It was developed to help individuals give up addictive behaviors and learn new behavioral skills, using techniques such as open-ended questions, reflective listening, affirmation, and summarization to help individuals express their concerns about change [ 55 ].
Reality therapy RT is supposed to encourage individuals to choose to improve their lives by committing to change their behavior. It includes sessions to show clients that addiction is a choice and to give them training in time management; it also introduces alternative activities to the problematic behavior [ 58 ]. According to Kim [ 58 ], RT is a core addiction recovery tool that offers a wide variety of uses as a treatment for addictive disorders such as drugs, sex, food, and works as well for the Internet.
In his RT group counseling program treatment study, Kim [ 59 ] found that the treatment program effectively reduced addiction level and improved self-esteem of 25 Internet-addicted university students in Korea. Widyanto and Griffith [ 8 ] report that most of the treatments employed so far had utilized a cognitive-behavioral approach. In her study, Young [ 62 ] used CBT to treat clients suffering from IAD and found that participants were better able to manage their presenting problems post-treatment, showing improved motivation to stop abusing the Internet, improved ability to control their computer use, improved ability to function in offline relationships, improved ability to abstain from sexually explicit online material, improved ability to engage in offline activities, and improved ability to achieve sobriety from problematic applications.
Cao, Su and Gao [ 63 ] investigated the effect of group CBT on 29 middle school students with IAD and found that IAD scores of the experimental group were lower than of the control group after treatment.
The authors also reported improvement in psychological function. In the experimental group the scores of depression, anxiety, compulsiveness, self-blame, illusion, and retreat were significantly decreased after treatment. The authors found that CBT alone or combined with EA can significantly reduce the score of IAD and anxiety on a self-rating scale and improve self-conscious health status in patients with IAD, but the effect obtained by the combined therapy was better.
A multimodal treatment approach is characterized by the implementation of several different types of treatment in some cases even from different disciplines such as pharmacology, psychotherapy and family counseling simultaneously or sequentially. In this group treatment, the quality of life increased and the level of depressive symptoms decreased after 16 weekly treatment sessions, but the level of problematic Internet use failed to decrease significantly [ 69 ].
Internet addiction related symptom scores significantly decreased after a group of 23 middle school students with IAD were treated with Behavioral Therapy BT or CT, detoxification treatment, psychosocial rehabilitation, personality modeling and parent training [ 70 ].
Therefore, the authors concluded that psychotherapy, in particular CT and BT were effective in treating middle school students with IAD. Shek, Tang, and Lo [ 71 ] described a multi-level counseling program designed for young people with IAD based on the responses of 59 clients.
Findings of this study suggest this multi-level counseling program including counseling, MI, family perspective, case work and group work is promising to help young people with IAD. Internet addiction symptom scores significantly decreased, but the program failed to increase psychological well-being significantly. A six-week group counseling program including CBT, social competence training, training of self-control strategies and training of communication skills was shown to be effective on 24 Internet-addicted college students in China [ 72 ].
The authors reported that the adapted CIAS-R scores of the experimental group were significantly lower than those of the control group post-treatment. The reSTART program is an inpatient Internet addiction recovery program which integrates technology detoxification no technology for 45 to 90 days , drug and alcohol treatment, 12 step work, cognitive behavioral therapy CBT , experiential adventure based therapy, Acceptance and Commitment therapy ACT , brain enhancing interventions, animal assisted therapy, motivational interviewing MI , mindfulness based relapse prevention MBRP , Mindfulness based stress reduction MBSR , interpersonal group psychotherapy, individual psychotherapy, individualized treatments for co-occurring disorders, psycho- educational groups life visioning, addiction education, communication and assertiveness training, social skills, life skills, Life balance plan , aftercare treatments monitoring of technology use, ongoing psychotherapy and group work , and continuing care outpatient treatment in an individualized, holistic approach.
The first results from an ongoing OQ Mehroof, M et al. The role of sensation seeking, self-control, neuroticism, aggression, state anxiety, and trait anxiety.
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 13, Regions of the brain associated with cravings in substance abuse also appear to be activated in gaming addicts when they view images of video games.
Brain activities associated with gaming urge of online gaming addiction. J ournal or Psychiatric Research, 43, There is a difference between "excessive gaming" and "addictive gaming". Two gamers may play for an identical number of hours each day, but their psychological motivation and the meaning that gaming has within their lives can be very different. Gaming addiction should be defined by how much the game negatively impacts others areas of life, not by how much time is spent playing. Griffiths, M et al.
The role of context in online gaming excess and addiction: Some case study evidence. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 8, These gamers possessed several behavioral attributes that are related to more well established forms of addiction e.
Excessive use of massively multi-player online role-playing games: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 7, Most online gamers are male. Among male gamers, more severe online gaming addiction is correlated with older age, lower self-esteem, and lower dissatisfaction with daily life. This relationship did not hold true for female gamers. Gender differences and related factors affecting online gaming addiction among Taiwanese adolescents.
Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, , - Online gamers who viewed themselves as playing excessively EverQuest in this particular study appeared to show several core components of addiction such as mood modification, tolerance, withdrawal symptoms, cravings, and relapse.
EverQuest - It's just a computer game right? An interpretive phenomenological analysis of online gaming addiction. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 4, - Online gaming addiction can be predicted by five critical factors: Curiosity, role-playing, obligation, belonging, and reward. One evidence is the excessive of use of computers of some students, it gives us a faster access to the world and is very beneficial to our studies like doing paper works and at the same time, entertainment.
Lessen, determine and prevent computer addiction, are in the mind of the researchers in conducting this study. The primary aim of this study is to obtain relevant information in the involvement of the college freshmen students towards computer games. Specifically, it sought to answer the following questions:. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of the following factors?
What are the most common factors which make involve them in computer games? What are the most pressing problems in their study habits as they go and play computer games in terms of the following? What are their ways to balance their gaming habit and study habit if there is, in terms of the following? The expected result if this research endeavor will benefit the following:.
Computer Addiction Research Share this page Computer addiction can be defined as the extreme or uncontrollable use of the computer which continues against serious negative corollary for personal, social or occupational function.
Research. Let us begin by defining computer addiction. Computer addiction is a dependency on computers in which someone uses computers so much as to compromise one's physical and/or psychological health.
The Effects of Computer Addiction to the Academic Performances of Mapua Institute of Technology First Year Students - Free download as Word Doc .doc), PDF /5(88). Problematic computer use is a growing social issue which is being debated worldwide. Internet Addiction Disorder (IAD) ruins lives by causing neurological complications, psychological disturbances, and social problems. Surveys in the United States and Europe have indicated alarming prevalence rates.
There are many things that causes addiction to computer, one reason being, is that most of the students just need something to occupy their time and these . Lessen, determine and prevent computer addiction, are in the mind of the researchers in conducting this study. We will write a custom essay sample on Research about Computer Addiction specifically for .