During the step of gathering data, researcher should make sure to verify the credibility of the information coming from the Internet.
Screenshots or another method for saving important websites should be used for reference since the online data might be changed without notice. For data such as reports and statistics, the best way to verify their credibility is to consult the appendix and references. Generally, the more detailed the references, the more trustable the data. Secondary Research is of value when information is compared and analyzed, when the researcher performs a critical review of the data, and when the researcher comes up with actionable findings to move the project forward.
After the brainstorming process, several ideas and themes had been chosen for mock-ups. The ideas and themes were then divided into styles, and secondary researches had been conducted based on those styles as topics. Most information was in the form of visual data. Information was arranged into mood boards for analysis.
These findings led to a search for a new approach to the campaign that could make the Fall Winter ad unique. A brainstorming process was used once again and a final campaign evolved that met the expectations of stakeholders.
The company used a 14 years old fashion icon to be the face of the brand and the photo shot was done in a home setting, with the model doing ordinary things instead of posing in front of the camera. Without the process of secondary research, the campaign would have likely had outcomes similar to their previous work.
The Market Research Toolbox: This next section is organised to introduce you to each step of this process, so that you can rely on this guide while planning your study. At the end of this blog post, in Table 6 , you will find a summary of all the steps of doing secondary research. For an undergraduate thesis, you are often provided with a specific research question by your supervisor. But for most other types of research, and especially if you are doing your graduate thesis, you need to arrive at a research question yourself.
The first step here is to specify the general research area in which your research will fall. For example, you may be interested in the topic of anxiety during pregnancy, or tourism in Greece, or transient lifestyles. Since we have used these examples previously, it may be useful to rely on them again to illustrate our discussion. Once you have identified your general topic, your next step consists of reading through existing papers to see whether there is a gap in the literature that your research can fill.
Having found your topic of interest and identified a gap in the literature, you need to specify your research question. In our three examples, research questions would be specified in the following manner: It is at this point, after reviewing the literature and specifying your research questions, that you may decide to rely on secondary data.
You will do this if you discover that there is past data that would be perfectly reusable in your own research, therefore helping you to answer your research question more thoroughly and easily.
But how do you discover if there is past data that could be useful for your research? You do this through reviewing the literature on your topic of interest. During this process, you will identify other researchers, organisations, agencies, or research centres that have explored your research topic. Somewhere there, you may discover a useful secondary data set.
You then need to contact the original authors and ask for a permission to use their data. Note, however, that this happens only if you are relying on external sources of secondary data. If you are doing your research internally i.
In any case, you need to ensure that a secondary data set is a good fit for your own research question. Once you have established that it is, you need to specify the reasons why you have decided to rely on secondary data. For instance, your choice to rely on secondary data in the above examples might be as follows: Because such disadvantages of secondary data can limit the effectiveness of your research, it is crucial that you evaluate a secondary data set. To ease this process, we outline here a reflective approach that will allow you to evaluate secondary data in a stepwise fashion.
During this step, you also need to pay close attention to any differences in research purposes and research questions between the original study and your own investigation. As we have discussed previously, you will often discover that the original study had a different research question in mind, and it is important for you to specify this difference. The aim of the first research example was to investigate mental difficulties e.
How does this aim differ from your research aim? Well, you are seeking to reuse this data set to investigate national differences in anxiety experienced by women during different pregnancy stages.
Finally, in our third example, the original research was a qualitative investigation into the reasons for living on boats. Your research question is different, because, although you are seeking to do the same investigation, you wish to do so by using a quantitative methodology.
Importantly, in all three examples, you conclude that secondary data may in fact answer your research question. If you conclude otherwise, it may be wise to find a different secondary data set or to opt for primary research. Original authors should have documented all their sample characteristics, measures, procedures, and protocols. This information can be obtained either in their final research report or through contacting the authors directly. It is important for you to know what type of data was collected, which measures were used, and whether such measures were reliable and valid if they were quantitative measures.
You also need to make a clear outline of the type of data collected — and especially the data relevant for your research. In our second example, the authors might have crafted their own measure to assess interest in Greek tourism, but there may be no established validity and reliability for this measure.
And in our third example, the authors have employed semi-structured interviews, which cover the most important reasons for wanting to live on boats. Ideally, you want your secondary data to have been collected within the last five years. We have already noted that you need to evaluate the reliability and validity of employed measures.
In addition to this, you need to evaluate how the sample was obtained, whether the sample was large enough, if the sample was representative of the population, if there were any missing responses on employed measures, whether confounders were controlled for, and whether the employed statistical analyses were appropriate.
Any drawbacks in the original methodology may limit your own research as well. Note that, since this was a qualitative investigation, there is no need to evaluate the number of missing values and the use of confounders.
We would conclude that the secondary data from our first research example has a high quality. Data was recently collected by professionals, the employed measures were both reliable and valid, and the methodology was more than sufficient.
We can be confident that our new research question can be sufficiently answered with the existing data. Thus, the data set for our first example is ideal. The two secondary data sets from our second research example seem, however, less than ideal.
Although we can answer our research questions on the basis of these recent data sets, the data was collected by an unprofessional source, the reliability and validity of the employed measure is uncertain, and the employed methodology has a few notable drawbacks.
Finally, the data from our third example seems sufficient both for answering our research question and in terms of the specific evaluations data was collected recently by a professional source, semi-structured interviews were well made, and the employed methodology was sufficient.
The final question to ask is: In this instance, you can only note the drawbacks of the original data set, present its limitations, and conclude that your own research may not be sufficiently well grounded. Your first sub-step here if you are doing quantitative research is to outline all variables of interest that you will use in your study. In our first example, you could have at least five variables of interest: In our second example, you will have two variables of interest: Once your variables of interest are identified, you need to transfer this data into a new SPSS or Excel file.
Remember simply to copy this data into the new file — it is vital that you do not alter it! Once this is done, you should address missing data identify and label them and recode variables if necessary e. You may also need to reverse-score some items, so that higher scores on all items indicate a higher degree of what is being assessed. Most of the time, you will also need to create new variables — that is, to compute final scores.
For instance, in our example of research on anxiety during pregnancy, your data will consist of scores on each item of the State Anxiety Inventory, completed at various times during pregnancy. You will need to calculate final anxiety scores for each time the measure was completed. Your final step consists of analysing the data. You will always need to decide on the most suitable analysis technique for your secondary data set.
In our first research example, you would rely on MANOVA to see if women of different nationalities experience different stress levels at the beginning, at three months, at six months, and at nine months of pregnancy ; and in our second example, you would use an independent samples t-test to see if interest in Greek tourism differs between Germans and Britons.
The process of preparing and analysing a secondary data set is slightly different if your secondary data is qualitative. In our example on the reasons for living on boats, you would first need to outline all reasons for living on boats, as recognised by the original qualitative research.
Then you would need to craft a questionnaire that assesses these reasons in a broader population. Note that this example combines qualitative and quantitative data.
But what if you are reusing qualitative data, as in our previous example of re-coding the interviews from our study to discover the language used when describing transient lifestyles? Here, you would simply need to recode the interviews and conduct a thematic analysis. Outline all reasons for living on boats; Craft a questionnaire that assesses these reasons in a broader population; Analyse the data. Recent Posts How often should you reference?
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Here's what we'll cover in this guide: TABLE 1 outlines the differences between primary and secondary research:. Whatever type of research you are conducting, always be aware of its strengths and limitations.
If you look at the table above, you should already be able to discern some advantages of secondary research. But this is far from the only consideration.
By now you may have concluded that using secondary data is a perfect option for your graduate or undergraduate dissertation. TABLE 2 provides a full summary of advantages and disadvantages of secondary research:.
So far, we have defined secondary research and outlined its advantages and disadvantages. TABLE 3 summarises particular methods and purposes of secondary research: The two most common types of secondary research are, as with all types of data, quantitative and qualitative. Secondary research can, therefore, be conducted by using either quantitative or qualitative data sets. TABLE 4 highlights the two main types of secondary data and their associated purposes: The two most common types of secondary data sources are labelled as internal and external.
TABLE 5 summarises the two sources of secondary data and associated examples:. In previous sections of this guide, we have covered some basic aspects of doing secondary research.
We have defined secondary data, outlined its advantages and disadvantages, introduced the methods and purposes of secondary research, and outlined the types and sources of secondary data. Another superb and highly effective way to conduct primary market research is through surveys and questionnaires. One of the most common examples of this research method is the feedback form given to customers at the time of billing at a restaurant.
Surveys are also conducted in the form of web questionnaires these days that enable businesses to collect a lot of feedback and then analyze it for further administration. There are two major observation techniques or research methods used in primary market research, and they are observation through interaction and communication with the subject and observation through no interaction and communication with the subject.
This form of research method comes under the quantitative primary research since through it; researchers evaluate or measure the behavior of the respondents or the users in general. This is more of a personal approach in comparison to surveys and questionnaires, etc. This method of primary research involves scientific tests where hypotheses and variables, etc.
This is a quantitative type of market research which may either be controlled out in the field or within controlled environments. In order to understand this form of research, here is an example that you can refer to: A food product company created 3 different food packaging styles and then sold the products to different consumers.
After a limited period of time, it analyzed the sales and came to a conclusion about the preferred packaging style or design. One may think of an in-depth interview to be a quantitative approach to primary market research, but this method, in fact, is a qualitative research that takes into consideration the kinds of choices and preferences a customer base has.
Interviews, unlike focus groups, involve interaction between one moderator and one respondent and several types of modes and methods may be used to conduct them. Interviews may not always be restricted to a set pattern of questions but can also be in the form of a conversation with the target customer base or audience.
This kind of a research method helps to dig further into what the customer wants, and the answers can later be analyzed to come to a conclusion for the final product delivery. Secondary market research is mainly based on collecting information from different sources and then coming to a conclusion.
The following are the two main types of Sources of Secondary market research data:. Internal sources include information that has already been collected by the company and proves useful for future projects, etc. For most businesses, internal sources may prove enough to develop new products and services, and this may not require them to look outside.
External sources are those sources that present data that is collected by other businesses or people. External sources can be wide and varied and hence one must follow a controlled approach to assessing them.
E-mail is already registered on the site. Please use the Login form or enter another. You entered an incorrect username or password. Great and in-depth post about marketing! Marketing is so key to being truly successful, and good marketing definitely starts with the proper research. I like your point on effective marketing research leads to encouraging communication.
So much of business is still about networking, word-of-mouth, and effectively communicating out to your audience. Doing the research like you have listed will definitely lead to finding that target audience and discovering new and better ways to communicate with them. Love this, now I understand the importance and different methods of market research in depth? Very good, I'm doing an assignment and the information in this article is great Thank you for the information.
source url Secondary Research is a common research method; it involves using information that others have gathered through primary research. shimoga gay dating Advantages The information already exists and is readily available -> quick & low cost.
Secondary research (also known as desk research) involves the summary, collation and/or synthesis of existing research rather than primary research, in which data are collected from, for example, research subjects or experiments.
Learn the difference between primary research performed to meet specific needs and (the more general) secondary research. Learn the difference between primary research performed to meet specific needs and (the more general) secondary research. Learn About Using Cross Tabs as a Quantitative Research Method. Talking Points for Convincing. Secondary data is one type of quantitative data that has already been collected by someone else for a different purpose to yours. For example, this could mean using.
Best Secondary Research Guide: Learn Examples, Types, Methods, Sources and Definition, Difference between Primary and Secondary Research. Secondary research is defined as an analysis and interpretation of primary research. The method of writing secondary research is to collect primary research that is relevant to a writing topic and.