The index i can be an arithmetic expression-see above. Omitting the index is the same as specifying index 0. Now we come to the somewhat unusual aspect of Korn shell arrays. Assume that the only values assigned to nicknames are the two we saw above. In other words, nicknames and nicknames don't exist. Furthermore, if you were to type:. This is why we said "the elements of nicknames with indices 2 and 3" earlier, instead of "the 2nd and 3rd elements of nicknames ".
Any array elements with unassigned values just don't exist; if you try to access their values, you will get null strings. The shell provides an operator that tells you how many elements an array has defined: To be quite frank, we feel that the Korn shell's array facility is of little use to shell programmers.
This is partially because it is so limited, but mainly because shell programming tasks are much more often oriented toward character strings and text than toward numbers. If you think of an array as a mapping from integers to values i. Nevertheless, we can find useful things to do with arrays.
For example, here is a cleaner solution to Task , in which a user can select his or her terminal type TERM environment variable at login time. Recall that the "user-friendly" version of this code used select and a case statement:.
We can eliminate the entire case construct by taking advantage of the fact that the select construct stores the user's number choice in the variable REPLY.
We just need a line of code that stores all of the possibilities for TERM in an array, in an order that corresponds to the items in the select menu. The resulting code is:. We have to subtract 1 from the value of REPLY because array indices start at 0, while select menu item numbers start at 1. The final Korn shell feature that relates to the kinds of values that variables can hold is the typeset command.
If you are a programmer, you might guess that typeset is used to specify the type of a variable integer, string, etc. Operations are specified by options to typeset ; the basic syntax is: Options can be combined; multiple varname s can be used. If you leave out varname , the shell prints a list of variables for which the given option is turned on. String formatting operations, such as right- and left-justification, truncation, and letter case control.
Type and attribute functions that are of primary interest to advanced programmers. The ability to define variables that are local to "subprogram" units procedures, functions, subroutines, etc.
If you just want to declare a variable local to a function, use typeset without any options. Variables in arithmetic expressions do not need to be preceded by dollar signs, though it is not wrong to do so. Arithmetic expressions are evaluated inside double quotes, like tildes, variables, and command substitutions. We're finally in a position to state the definitive rule about quoting strings: When in doubt, enclose a string in single quotes, unless it contains tildes or any expression involving a dollar sign, in which case you should use double quotes.
The arithmetic expression feature is built in to the Korn shell's syntax, and was available in the Bourne shell most versions only through the external command expr 1. Thus it is yet another example of a desirable feature provided by an external command i.
Korn shell arithmetic expressions are equivalent to their counterparts in the C language. Parentheses can be used to group subexpressions. The arithmetic expression syntax also like C supports relational operators as "truth values" of 1 for true and 0 for false. The shell also supports base N numbers, where N can be up to The notation B N means " N base B ".
Of course, if you omit the B , the base defaults to We use this for evaluating arithmetic condition tests, just as [[ Instead of producing a textual result, it just sets its exit status according to the truth of the expression: You can also use numerical values for truth values within this construct. It's like the analogous concept in C, which means that it's somewhat counterintuitive to non-C programmers: See the code for the kshdb debugger in Chapter 9 for two more examples of this.
That syntax isn't intuitive, so the shell provides a better equivalent: It is good practice to surround expressions with quotes, since many characters are treated as special by the shell e. Write a script called pages that, given the name of a text file, tells how many pages of output it contains. Assume that there are 66 lines to a page but provide an option allowing the user to override that. We'll make our option - N , a la head. The syntax for this single option is so simple that we need not bother with getopts.
Here is the code:. At the heart of this code is the UNIX utility wc 1 , which counts the number of lines, words, and characters bytes in its input. By default, its output looks something like this:. Since we want only the number of lines, we have to do two things. This produces the number of lines preceded by a single space which would normally separate the filename from the number. Unfortunately, that space complicates matters: That leads to the second modification, the quotes around the command substitution expression.
The next group of lines calculates the number of pages and, if there is a remainder after the division, adds 1. Finally, the appropriate message is printed.
As a bigger example of integer arithmetic, we will complete our emulation of the C shell's pushd and popd functions Task The C shell's pushd and popd take additional types of arguments, which are:. The most useful of these features is the ability to get at the n th directory in the stack. Here are the latest versions of both functions:. To get at the n th directory, we use a while loop that transfers the top directory to a temporary copy of the stack n times.
We'll put the loop into a function called getNdirs that looks like this:. The argument passed to getNdirs is the n in question. The variable stackfront is the temporary copy that will contain the first n directories when the loop is done. The last line increments the counter for the next iteration. The entire loop executes N times, for values of count from 0 to N With this in mind, we can now write the code for the improved versions of pushd and popd:.
These functions have grown rather large; let's look at them in turn. If so, the first body of code is run. This, in turn, is passed to the getNdirs function. The next two assignment statements set newtop to the N th directory - i. The final two lines in this part of pushd put the stack back together again in the appropriate order and cd to the new top directory. The elif clause tests for no argument, in which case pushd should swap the top two directories on the stack.
The first four lines of this clause assign the top two directories to firstdir and seconddir , and delete these from the stack. Then, as above, the code puts the stack back together in the new order and cd s to the new top directory. The else clause corresponds to the usual case, where the user supplies a directory name as argument. A let extracts the N as an integer; the getNdirs function puts the first n directories into stackfront.
Finally, the stack is put back together with the N th directory missing. Before we leave this subject, here are a few exercises that should test your understanding of this code:.
Add code to pushd that exits with an error message if the user supplies no argument and the stack contains fewer than two directories. Modify the getNdirs function so that it checks for the above condition and exits with an appropriate error message if true.
Change getNdirs so that it uses cut with command substitution , instead of the while loop, to extract the first N directories.
This uses less code but runs more slowly because of the extra processes generated. Relax-and-Recover is written in Bash at least bash version 3 is needed , a language that can be used in many styles. We want to make it easier for everybody to understand the Relax-and-Recover code and subsequently to contribute fixes and enhancements. Don't be afraid to contribute to Relax-and-Recover even if your contribution does not fully match all this coding hints. Currently large parts of the Relax-and-Recover code are not yet in compliance with this coding hints.
This is an ongoing step by step process. Nevertheless try to understand the idea behind this coding hints so that you know how to break them properly i. Do not only tell what the code does i. Now the intent behind is clear and now others can easily decide if that code is really the best way to do it and easily improve it if needed.
By default bash proceeds with the next command when something failed. Do not let your code blindly proceed in case of errors because that could make it hard to find the root cause of a failure when it errors out somewhere later at an unrelated place with a weird error message which could lead to false fixes that cure only a particular symptom but not the root cause.
Implement adaptions and enhancements in a backward compatible way so that your changes do not cause regressions for others. When there are special issues on particular systems it is more important that the Relax-and-Recover code works than having nice looking clean code that sometimes fails. In such special cases any dirty hacks that intend to make it work everywhere are welcome.
But for dirty hacks the above listed coding hints become mandatory rules:. In particular do not use UTF-8 encoded multi-byte characters. Use the available Relax-and-Recover functions when possible instead of re-implementing basic functionality again and again. This type of for loop share a common heritage with the C programming language. BTW, where did you read that it was 3. I ask because you may know some good website of interest on the subject. You code is missing the increment.
The Bash Hackers page again, see http: Anyway, at least one of them may be right… ;-. I use several computers, some of which have non-US settings with comma as a decimal point. Is there a way to force the first variant, regardless of the language settings? Can I, for example, set the keyboard to US inside the script? I am sending these as parameters to another code and it won't accept numbers with commas….
Interestingly, the sed command does not seem to be upset by me rewriting its variable. By the way, Vivek has already documented the matter: Regarding your last example, that is: If a given filename is not modified by the expression, it will not be renamed.
If no filenames are given on the command line, filenames will be read via standard input. If you set the shell option extglob, Bash understands some more powerful patterns. Here, a is one or more pattern, separated by the pipe-symbol. Matches anything except one of the given patterns. Then you might want to consider using [ nullglob ] shell extension, to prevent this. There is an interesting difference between the exit value for two different for looping structures hope this comes out right: And, again, as stated many times up there, using [seq] is counter productive, because it requires a call to an external program, when you should Keep It Short and Simple, using only bash internals functions:.
By the way, this historical recall should be placed only at topic end, and not on top of the topic, which makes newbies sticking to the not-up-to-date technique ;-. I have a comment to add about using the builtin for … syntax. I would agree the builtin method is cleaner, but from what I've noticed with other builtin functionality, I had to check the speed advantage for myself. I wrote the following files:. And here were the results that I got: The performance increase isn't too significant, especially when you are probably going to be doing something a little more interesting inside of the for loop, but it does show that builtin commands are not necessarily faster.
The reason why the external seq is faster, is because it is executed only once, and returns a huge splurb of space separated integers which need no further processing, apart from the for loop advancing to the next one for the variable substitution.
The check expression is re-evaluated on every iteration, and a variable on the interpreter's heap gets incremented, possibly checked for overflow etc. Note that the check expression cannot be simplified or internally optimised by the interpreter because the value may change inside the loop's body yes, there are cases where you'd want to do this, however rare and stupid they may seem , hence the variables are volatile and get re-evaluted.
Point being that it gets executed only once and becomes static. I am not certain it is in Posix. Not Ksh, Bash, or anything else. Bourne Shell syntax works everywhere!
But as 'expr' is a builtin in more modern shells, then it is not a big loss or slow down. This is especially important if writing a replacement command, such as for "seq" where you want your "just-paste-it-in" function to work as widely as possible. I have been shell programming pretty well all the time since , so I know what I am talking about! A major pain to write shells scripts that need to also work on this system. If you want to use anyname with the script, replace: And then use your script file named for instance "myScript" with standard input redirection: After all that's what it was built for…: Another bug is the inner loop is a pipeline, so you can't assign variables for use later in the script.
But this does not help when you have commas within the quotes! Which is why you needed quotes in the first place. In any case It is a little off topic. Perhaps a new thread for reading CVS files in shell should be created.
This script named here [cvs As long as you know what you do, this is not problem, you just have to store [REPLY] value conveniently, as this script shows. I didn't see this in the article or any of the comments so I thought I'd share. While this is a contrived example, I find that nesting two groups can help squeeze a two-liner once for each range into a one-liner:.
That would be because brace expansion does not support variables. I have to check this. Anyway, Keep It Short and Simple: KISS here is a simple solution I already gave above:. Thanks for your suggestions You basically confirmed my findings, that bash constructions are not as simple as zsh ones.
But since I don't care about POSIX compliance, and want to keep my scripts "readable" for less experienced people, I would prefer to stick to zsh where my simple for-loop works. First, you got it wrong: See all the other comments on doing for loops. I am trying to use the variable I set in the for line on to set another variable with a different extension. Couldn't get this to work and couldnt find it anywhere on the web… Can someone help.
Another way to use let bash builtin: There's no reason to be using let. You can use the arithmetic expansion instead. Arithmetic Expansion Arithmetic expansion allows the evaluation of an arithmetic expression and the substitution of the result. The format for arithmetic expansion is: All tokens in the expression undergo parameter expansion, string expansion, command substitution, and quote removal.
Arithmetic expansions may be nested. If expression is invalid, bash prints a message indicating failure and no substitution occurs. Aside from readability, it also doesn't require forking an extra process to do the arithmetic; it's handled by the shell itself. Note that in POSIX shells, it's subject to word splitting, so it's a good habit to quote it in list contexts.
The parentheses aren't keywords like while and [[, they're syntax. If they were keywords, they wouldn't be interpreted as such in command arguments. You need quotes so that bash doesn't parse them but instead sees a string literal. There's no reason to be using expr for arithmetic in modern shells. So you can use that in all POSIX compliant shells the sh of all modern Unix-likes, dash, bash, yash, mksh, zsh, posh, ksh On the non-Bourne front, there are a few shells with built-in arithmetic operator: Therefore, if you want expr to see shell special characters, you need to protect them from shell parsing by quoting them.
Furthermore, expr needs each number and operator to be passed as a separate parameter. In the old days, shells didn't have a built-in way to perform arithmetic, and you had to call the expr utility instead.
Bash, like most shells, supports only integer arithmetic modulo or modulo for older versions of bash and some other shells on bit machines. Bash offers an additional convenience syntax when you want to perform assignments or to test whether an expression is 0 but don't care about the result.
This construct also exists in ksh and zsh but not in plain sh. Unless you're maintaing scripts that run on year-old systems, you don't need to know that expr ever existed. It also does string comparison, which POSIX [ does not do though one could imagine ways to use sort for that. Arithmetic in BASH is integer math only. Also see the Bash hackers article about the full syntax theory. There are several ways to tell Bash to treat numbers as integers instead of strings, and to do basic arithmetic operations on them.
The first is to use the let command:. Note that each arithmetic expression has to be passed as a single argument to the let command, so you need quotes if there are spaces or globbing characters, thus:. In addition to the let command, one may use the syntax to enforce an arithmetic context. It comes from ksh and is only available in ksh, Bash and zsh. Like for parameter substitution, arithmetic substitution is subject to word splitting so should be quoted to prevent it when in list contexts.
Here are some examples of the use of the arithmetic substitution syntax:. Variables may be declare d as integers so that any subsequent assignments to them will always assume a numeric context.
Essentially any variable that's declared as an integer acts as if you had a let command in front of it when you assign to it. There is one common pitfall with arithmetic expressions in Bash: This causes great confusion among people who are extracting zero-padded numbers from various sources although dates are by far the most common and then doing math on them without sanitizing them first.
It's especially bad if you write a program like this in March, test it, roll it out If you have leading-zero problems with Bash's built-in arithmetic, there are two possible solutions. The first is, obviously, to remove the leading zeroes from the numbers before doing math with them. This is not trivial in Bash, unfortunately, because Bash has no ability to perform substitutions on a variable using regular expressions it can only do it with "glob" patterns.
But you could use a loop:. You can do the above without using a loop, by using extended globs; see FAQ 67 for more information. Or, you could use sed ; that may be more efficient if you're reading many numbers from a stream, and can arrange to sanitize them all in one command, rather than one by one. The third solution is to force Bash to treat all numbers as base 10 by prefixing them with This might be more efficient, but also may be less elegant to read.
Finally, a note on the exit status of commands, and the notions of "true" and "false", is in order. When bash runs a command, that command will return an exit status from 0 to However, in an arithmetic context, there are places where the C language rules 0 is false, anything else is true apply.
In addition to a comparison returning 1 for true, an arithmetic expression that evaluates to a non-zero value is also true in the sense of a command. Both Bash and the Korn shell support evaluating arithmetic expressions without arithmetic expansion.
Because expansion is not performed, the construct can be used without variable assignment or the colon operator:. The real value of this construct is that it allows arithmetic expressions to be used rather than test in if , while , and until commands.
The comparison operators set the exit status to a nonzero value if the result of the comparison is false and to a zero value if the result is true. This knowledge makes integer arithmetic ideal for inclusion in if commands:. One advantage of using The Korn shell and Bash both support an integer data type. You can declare variables to be integers by using the typeset command with the - i option. Initial values can be assigned to the variables at the time they are declared.
Arithmetic performed on integer variables with the An integer variable cannot be assigned anything but an integer value or an integer expression.
If you attempt to assign a noninteger to it, the message bad number is printed by the Korn shell:. Bash simply ignores any strings that don't contain numeric values and generates an error for anything that contains both numbers and other characters:. The preceding example shows that integer-valued expressions can be assigned to an integer variable, without even having to use the This holds true for both Bash and the Korn shell.
The Korn shell and Bash allow you to perform arithmetic in different bases. To write a number in a different base with these shells, you use the notation. You can write constants in different bases anywhere an integer value is permitted.
To assign octal to the integer variable i , you can write. Note that with the Korn shell the base of the first value assigned to an integer variable fixes the base of all subsequent substitutions of that variable. In other words, if the first value you assign to the integer variable i is an octal number, each time you subsequently substitute the value of i on the command line, the Korn shell substitutes the value as an octal number using the notation 8 value. Because the first value assigned to i in this example is an octal number 8 , all further substitutions of i will be in octal.
When the base 10 value of 50 is next assigned to i and then i is subsequently displayed, we get the value 8 62, which is the octal equivalent of 50 in base In the preceding example, the The result is then displayed, once again in octal. Bash uses both the base number syntax for arbitrary bases and the C language syntax for octal and hexadecimal numbers-octal numbers are preceded by 0 zero , and hexadecimal numbers are preceded by 0x:.
Unlike the Korn shell, Bash doesn't keep track of the variable's base; integer variables are displayed as decimal numbers. You can always use printf to print integers in octal or hexadecimal format. As of version 2. Bash does not understand floating point arithmetic. It treats numbers containing a decimal point as strings.
Although not as powerful as similar constructs in the P languages Perl, Python, and PHP and others, they are often quite useful. Bash arrays have numbered indexes only, but they are sparse, ie you don't have to define all the indexes. An entire array can be assigned by enclosing the array items in parenthesis:. Note that it's a 2. It will generally run anywhere from a few days to a couple of months ahead of the main release on the LDP site.
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